Constructed wetlands, sometimes called stormwater wetlands, are shallow depressions that receive stormwater inputs for water quality treatment. Wetlands are typically less than 1 foot deep (although they have greater depths at the forebay and in micropools) and possess variable microtopography to promote dense and diverse wetland cover. Runoff from each new storm displaces runoff from previous storms, and the long residence time allows multiple pollutant removal processes to operate. The wetland environment provides an ideal environment for gravitational settling, biological uptake, and microbial activity. Constructed wetlands are the final element in the roof-to-stream runoff reduction sequence. They should only be considered for use after all other upland runoff reduction opportunities have been exhausted and there is still a remaining water quality or Channel Protection Volume to manage.
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